By Fouad G. Major
This version keeps the basically didactic method of the remedy of the improvement of atomic clocks within the first version, yet brings brand new the intense advancements in recent times, culminating in clocks in keeping with quantum resonance at optical frequency in person ions limited in miniature electromagnetic traps.
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Extra info for The quantum beat: Principles and applications of atomic clocks
In this particular case, as blackbody radiation, the light from the sun will have phases that are random, which makes the availability of a representation in the form of a power spectrum, free of the phases, particularly crucial. 5 Examples of Fourier spectra ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ “MAJOR” — 2007/4/26 — 15:39 — page 41 — #49 ✐ ✐ 2. 10 Coupled Oscillations An important situation often arises in which one oscillatory system interacts with another. This often occurs where the oscillations of the one are to be synchronized with the other, a process familiar in television receivers.
Another important limitation of the pendulum as a reference oscillator is that its period depends on the strength of gravity, which varies from point to point on the earth’s surface. This is because the earth is neither spherical nor homogeneous. As far back as 1672, it was established through pendulum measurements that the acceleration due to gravity is different for different geographical locations. This was explained by Newton by assuming a model of the earth as a uniform gravitating plastic body, which, by virtue of its spin, would bulge around the equator into an oblate spheroid.
1 Feedback in Amplifiers As already noted, an oscillatory system will, in the absence of a driving force to maintain the oscillation, eventually come to rest. In order to keep a constant level of oscillation, it is necessary to inject energy into the system, an action most efficiently performed by a periodic force at a resonant frequency. It is not necessary that the external source of energy itself be periodic, since the oscillating system can be made to draw energy automatically at its own frequency; it is then called a self-sustained oscillator.