By Colin D. Binnie MD FRCP, Raymond Cooper BSc PhD, F. Mauguiere MD, John W. Osselton BSc, Pamela F. Prior MD FRCP, B. M. Tedman
Lengthy replica (cont'd in lengthy field): scientific Neurophysiology: EMG, Nerve Conduction and Evoked Potentials is addressed to those that require realizing of the underlying medical rules, right recording strategies, and the improvement and features of electric potentials in common topics and the ways that those are plagued by actual elements or affliction. This origin will permit the reader to interpret quite a lot of scientific difficulties at the foundation of first rules
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Extra resources for Clinical Neurophysiology. EMG, Nerve Conduction and Evoked Potentials
However, with the arrival into clinical neurophysiology of other techniques than EEG (particularly evoked potentials), this convention was sometimes changed to match engineering practice where positivity is usually displayed upwards. ). No one was prepared to change their convention, so both were deemed acceptable provided that the polarity was clearly indicated on any diagram (Donchin et al, 1977). The matter was not improved by some manufacturers labelling their input terminals positive and negative, red and green or active and passive!
In these instruments the amplitude values of the neurophysiological activity are measured or 'sam pled' at a series of consecutive points shortly before and after the stimulus. The amplitude value of each of these points is stored (as a binary number) in the memory of the averager; the set of points (extending over an epoch) is called a trial Values from subsequent trials are added to make a set of sums; the average EP is obtained by dividing each sum by N (the number of trials). The process of sampling the data is known as digitizing and is done with analogue to digital (A-D) converters.
For example, there would be little point in starting the attenuation of the high frequencies at say 1 kHz for clinical EEG, as the noise might be mistaken for, or worse, obscure brain activity. Electrode impe dances should be kept low, although mains interfer ence will be more troublesome than thermal noise if the electrode impedances are high. The plugs on the leads from the electrodes are also a source of noise; they should be kept clean and dry. The noise in a clinical EEG machine with shorted input and low-pass filters set to 70 Hz should be not more than 1 μν peak to peak.