By Mohan Iyer (auth.)
This e-book has been written step clever by way of enumerating quite a few elements of the significance of scientific exam derived through laying one’s arms at the affected half. through a radical scientific exam, it could possibly aid anyone to reach at a tentative differential prognosis of the situation and as a result assist in investigating an analogous by means of a variety of assessments that are appropriate to the given . the style within which a given case is dealt with during this manner is much extra very important than the analysis of the and this selection comes with working towards an identical again and again. it's a needs to for a person embarking in lifestyles on Orthopedics as a career.
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Additional info for Clinical Examination in Orthopedics
Occasionally, discrete nodules may be palpable over the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the distal interphalangeal joint, which are called Heberden’s nodes, and are commonly seen in osteoarthritis. In cases where the extensor tendon is avulsed at its insertion with or without a bony fragment, there may be a fixed flexion deformity of the distal interphalangeal joint called a mallet finger. Hand Zone VI: Tufts of the Fingers The tufts of the fingers contain terminal sensory nerve endings which are embedded in septae which when infected with pus are tense and painful.
Occasionally a spinal fracture may have radiation to the shoulder along its muscle inserted into the scapula. Sometimes pain may radiate retrograde proximally in cases of injuries to the distal humerus or the elbow. Certain specific conditions affecting the shoulder joint should be borne in mind, such as: 1. Scapular disorders such as: (a) Sprengel’s shoulder: Sometimes one scapula remains high due to incomplete descent from the neck, which is usually around the third month of fetal life. In these cases, deformity along with limitation of movements is the only symptom, along with a web of skin which runs along the side of the neck.
It may become essential to treat one of the elbows by arthroplasty or joint replacement, to enable the hand to reach the mouth (Fig. 2). When seen in one elbow, congenital synostosis of the superior radioulnar joint must be kept in mind when there is also a loss of rotation. (a) Posttraumatic stiffness: This may be seen after any injury to the elbow. This is usually very severe, when seen with a lot of myositis ossificans. Removal of the myositis ossificans may be done in cases of bone block to flexion, but the gain in movements is not often very great.