Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers by Nazim Z. Muradov, T. Nejat Veziroğlu

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By Nazim Z. Muradov, T. Nejat Veziroğlu

Matters over an volatile strength offer and the opposed environmental effect of carbonaceous fuels have caused massive efforts all over the world to discover carbon-free or low-carbon possible choices to standard fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and effort providers emphasizes the very important position of carbon-neutral power assets, transportation fuels, and linked applied sciences for setting up a sustainable power destiny. every one bankruptcy attracts at the perception of world-renowned specialists in such diversified fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, sunlight and nuclear strength, biofuels and artificial fuels, carbon sequestration, and substitute gas vehicles.
After an introductory bankruptcy on various strength techniques in a carbon-constrained global and proposed measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2, the booklet analyzes the benefits and demanding situations dealing with the advent of hydrogen gas to undefined. It then examines the position of nuclear energy within the creation of carbon-free power and fuels in addition to the effective use and garage of renewable strength assets, emphasizing the creation of sun fuels from water and CO2. The booklet additionally discusses diversified features of bioenergy and biofuels creation and use and the aptitude function of bio-inspired strength platforms and business tactics. the ultimate chapters current an intensive evaluate and research of cutting-edge fossil gasoline decarbonization applied sciences and fresh transportation options.
This authoritative paintings presents the knowledge had to make extra knowledgeable offerings concerning on hand fresh power and gasoline choices. It is helping readers to raised comprehend the interconnection among strength and the surroundings in addition to the aptitude influence of human actions on weather.

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Typically, flue gases from combustion of NG in air have the lowest CO2 concentrations, and from coal, coke, or residual oil combustion in O2 or O2-enriched air have the highest CO2 concentrations. 20B) contain CO2 in somewhat higher concentrations compared to flue gases from the combustion-type sources. 014 MPa), which makes them more suitable for a subsequent recovery of CO2 (IPCC CCS 2005; IEA GHG 2002). % and higher (IPCC CCS 2005). The off-gases from sugar-to-ethanol fermentation plants contain almost pure CO2 (with insignificant amount of organic impurities).

Consequently, this will cause additional increase in water vapor concentration and the CO2 flux from the ocean to the atmosphere, further intensifying the greenhouse effect and warming. It was estimated that the effect of the water vapor feedback could double the intensity of the greenhouse effect due to added CO2 alone (IPCC PSB 2007). 4 Greenhouse Effect and Carbon Cycle All objects in nature, including the Sun and the Earth, are emitting electromagnetic radiation. , in W m−2) ε is emissivity coefficient σ is Stefan-Boltzmann coefficient T is absolute temperature If we calculate the temperature of a body that emits 235 W m−2 of radiant energy based on this equation, we would come up with the temperature of about minus 18°C–19°C (Kreith 2000), which is far below the average temperature on the Earth’s surface (14°C).

S. 17 summarizes the quantity of CO2 emissions and the relative distribution of CO2 sources by the industry sector (the data for 1971 and 2007 are presented). Electricity/ heat generation and transport are two major sources of CO2 emissions: their combined share of CO2 emissions grew from about half in 1971 to about two-thirds of the global CO2 emissions in 2007 (IEA Statistics 2009). The emissions from electricity/heat generation increased at faster rates compared to other sectors and their share grew from 27% in 1971 to 41% in 2007.

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