Cambridge Dictionary of Scientists by David Millar

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By David Millar

This quantity is a useful one-stop reference booklet for a person short of a quick and actual account of the existence and paintings of these who created technological know-how from its beginnings to the current day. The alphabetically equipped, illustrated biographical dictionary has been completely revised and up to date, masking over 1,500 key scientists (157 greater than within the past variation) from forty international locations. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, arithmetic, drugs, meteorology and know-how are all represented and distinctive awareness is paid to pioneer ladies whose achievements and instance opened how to medical careers for others. This re-creation comprises contemporary Nobel laureates, in addition to winners of the Fields Medal, the mathematician's identical of the Nobel Prize. Illustrated with round a hundred and fifty snap shots, diagrams, maps and tables, and with distinctive panel beneficial properties, this ebook is an available consultant to the world's famous clinical personalities. David Millar has conducted learn into the move of polar ice sheets on the Scott Polar learn Institute, Cambridge, and in Antarctica. He has additionally written on more than a few technology and know-how themes, and edited a research of the politics of the Antarctic. His expert profession has been spent within the oil undefined, largely within the advertising and marketing of geoscience software program. He lives in France. John Millar graduated from Trinity university, Cambridge, and has a doctorate from Imperial university, London. He labored for BP constructing new geophysical equipment to be used in oil exploration and construction. In 1994 he co-founded GroundFlow Ltd., which has constructed electrokinetic surveying and logging as a brand new procedure for imaging and mapping fluids in subsurface porous rocks.

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Van Beneden followed his father in taking charge of zoology teaching at Liège in 1870. His course of teaching was based largely on his own researches, which he did not publish, but one of his students published them after van Beneden’s death. He showed in the 1880s that the number of chromosomes is constant in the cells of an animal body (except the sex cells) and the number is characteristic of the species (eg 46 in each human cell). He worked particularly with the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an intestinal worm from horses; these chromosomes are conveniently large and few (four in the body cells, two in the sex cells).

His ideas were certainly influential in science and probably even more in philosophy. His personality was unattractive and his writings abstruse, but his confidence that nature could be understood and even controlled was important, and as a critic and a prophet his role in the scientific development of the following centuries is significant. His own direct scientific work was limited; the best example is his conclusion on the nature of heat, which by argument and thoughtexperiments he decided was ‘an expansive motion restrained, and striving to exert itself in the smaller particles’.

He found that a uranium salt placed on a wrapped photographic plate caused this to blacken. He soon found that this did not require light; that it was due to the uranium only; and that the radiation was not reflected like light. He found it was able to ionize air. Although similar to the X-rays discovered in 1895 by Röntgen, it was not the same. His work was soon confirmed and was the starting point for all studies on radioactivity. He shared the Nobel Prize for physics in 1903 with the Curies.

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