Brownian movement and molecular reality by Jean Perrin

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By Jean Perrin

Early stories via Einstein and Perrin supplied a few of the first facts for the life of molecules. Perrin, a Nobel Laureate, wrote this vintage to give an explanation for his measurements of displaced debris of a resin suspended in water. It brought the idea that of Avogadro's quantity, in addition to different groundbreaking work. 1910 version.

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A million volts or more? Wings over Europe, as noted earlier, was first performed by the New York Theater Guild in December of 1928. It seems unlikely that its two playwrights were aware that young physicists in America and in England were just then setting out to accomplish what Lightfoot failed to do. In fact, the physicists themselves scarcely knew of their forthcoming preoccupation with atom smashing when the year began, except possibly for one or two in the UK. Ernest T S Walton, who happened to be 25, like Lightfoot, was the son of a Methodist Minister, born in County Waterford, Ireland.

In the latter experiment, a collimated beam of silver atoms passed through a magnetic field, and struck a target screen. If the field was uniform, the atoms, each possessing a magnetic moment, precessed about the direction of the magnetic field, and formed a narrow line on the screen. However, if the field was strongly inhomogeneous, the elementary magnets were deflected from their rectilinear paths, forming two separate lines on the screen. From careful measurements of the separation of the two lines, and of the gradient of the magnetic field, Stern and Gerlach calculated that each silver atom had a magnetic moment in the direction of the field of 1 Bohr Magneton (a unit of the magnetic moment of the orbital electron).

It has long been my ambition to have available for study a copious supply of atoms and electrons which have an individual energy far transcending that of the - and -particles from radioactive bodies. I am hopeful that I may yet have my wish fulfilled, but it is obvious that many experimental difficulties will have to be surmounted before this can be realized, even on a laboratory scale. ’ In fact, there was a need, not only for accelerating voltages comparable to nuclear binding energies, or several million electron volts, but also for sources of higher currents.

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