By Andrew Collier
Being and price extends fresh depth-realist philosophy to the query of values. It argues that beings either within the usual and human worlds have worthy in themselves, no matter if we recognize it or no longer. This view is defended via and account of the human brain as primarily occupied with that of which it truly is self reliant. Conclusions keep on with either for environmental ethics - that traditional beings could be valued for themselves, not only for their use to us - and for justice within the human global, dependent at the concept that people are designated and equivalent in appreciate of 'having a existence to live'.
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Additional resources for Being and Worth (Critical Realism, Interventions)
Allow me one more word here about my marriage of Spinoza to Macmurray. Paradigm 5 radically avoids head/ heart dualism, but it is all too easy to slip back into that dualism, which has been so influential in European ethics. I have claimed that Macmurray, though his central thought belongs to paradigm 5, sometimes slips back into the dualism of paradigm 3 (‘pro-heart’ dualism). Spinoza also sometimes slips into dualism. When he does, it is into paradigm 2 (‘pro-head’ dualism). The marriage of Spinoza and Macmurray is meant to divorce Spinoza from the Stoic tradition and Macmurray from the romantic tradition; it is what the two have in common that I am defending.
But it does mean that even so intimate a firsthand experience is preceded and conditioned by second-hand experience. This can be generalised: for every individual and in every respect, second-hand experience precedes and conditions first-hand experience. The work of intellect, as the agency for fulfilling the norm implicit in reason, is to bring as much as possible of this mass of pre-reflective ideas into conformity with the truth about the beings of which they are ideas, thereby transforming the emotions in which those ideas inhere.
For Spinoza as for Freud, then, the move from irrational to rational involves becoming aware of the real causes of our ideas, so that causes and objects become aligned, and our emotions appropriate to their objects. In one sense, this involves 40 BEING AND WORTH a move towards more self-determination of the individual who becomes more rational. Their ideas are no longer put there by accidental events beyond their control, but become more and more susceptible to conscious testing by thought and action.