Basic Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Operators by Darshan Singh Sarai

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By Darshan Singh Sarai

Water and wastewater operators desire an knowing of chemistry to correctly perform the chemical stages of therapy, together with coagulation, sedimentation, softening, and disinfection.

Knowledge of simple chemistry is additionally required to cross operator certification examinations. Operators gets the educational they wish during this chemistry primer adapted only for operators of consuming water or wastewater structures

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Basic Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Operators

Water and wastewater operators want an knowing of chemistry to correctly perform the chemical stages of remedy, together with coagulation, sedimentation, softening, and disinfection. wisdom of uncomplicated chemistry can also be required to cross operator certification examinations. Operators gets the educational they wish during this chemistry primer adapted only for operators of ingesting water or wastewater platforms

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Sample text

A hydrogen ion (H+) is known as a proton because there is a single proton in the hydrogen nucleus that gives a positive charge after the loss of the electron. A hydrogen ion in a water solution exists only in association with a water molecule as hydronium ion (H3O+). H+ + H2O = H3O+ HCl + H2O → H3O+ + Cl– Sometimes, this equation is simplified as HCl → H+ + Cl– A hydronium ion is responsible for the properties of the acids, such as sour taste and the ability to turn blue litmus paper red. All acids are polar covalent compounds; hydrogen, the common element in all acids, is commonly the first part of their formula.

Acids change the color of certain indicators. book Page 49 Monday, February 18, 2002 5:03 PM Chapter 6 Acids, Bases, and Salts Naming Acids Binary acids (acids formed of only two elements) start with hydro- and end with -ic. After hydro, comes the root of the name of the second element. HCl = hydrochloric acid HBr = hydrobromic acid H2S = hydrosulfuric acid Ternary acids (acids formed of three elements: hydrogen, middle element, and oxygen) commonly have the root of the name of the middle element with the ending -ic or -ous.

Fe2O3 5. Calculate percentage composition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). book Page 37 Monday, February 18, 2002 5:03 PM 5 Chemical Equations A chemical equation is a concise symbolized picture of a chemical reaction. It has both qualitative and quantitative significance. It tells us which substances are reacting and in what amounts to produce which and how much of new substances. Hydrogen + Oxygen → Water 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O Mass Ratio 2 × 2 : 2 × 16 : 2 × 18 This equation shows that 4 mass units of hydrogen react with 32 mass units of oxygen to produce 36 mass units of water.

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