Atoms, molecules and photons : an introduction to atomic-, by Wolfgang Demtröder

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By Wolfgang Demtröder

Creation -- the concept that of the atom -- improvement of quantum physics -- uncomplicated innovations of quantum mechanics -- The hydrogen atom -- Atoms with multiple electron -- Emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by means of atoms -- Lasers -- Diatomic molecules -- Polyatomic molecules -- Experimental innovations in atomic and molecular physics -- smooth advancements in atomic and molecular physics

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Examples of crystal planes perpendicular to the drawing plane with different separations di where the lattice constant a gives the distance between neighboring atoms. If the crystal is turned against the direction of the incident beam, one obtains for different angles ϑm , maxima of the diffracted radiation, when dk · sin ϑ = a · sin αk · sin ϑm = m · λ for m = 1, 2, 3, . . If the wavelength λ is known (see Sect. 6) the distances dk between adjacent planes and therefore the lattice constant a can be determined from the measured angles ϑm .

For larger distances the interaction between the balls is zero. The interaction energy between two hard spheres is therefore (Fig. 14): E pot (r ) = 0 for r ≥ 2r0 , E pot (r ) = ∞ for r < 2r0 . 24) At a pressure of 1 bar and room temperature T = 300 K, 1 cm3 of a gas contains about 3 × 1019 atoms or molecules. Their mean distance is d = 3 nm. 5 nm. 017 1 and Ve /V = 5 × 10−6 . Helium under these conditions can therefore be regarded as an ideal gas. The gas exerts a pressure p onto the wall of the container, which is caused by momentum transfer during collisions of the gas molecules with the wall (Fig.

The necessary minimum energy of the electrons to leave the metal. 3). For a regular crystal, A also depends on the direction of the surface normal against the crystal axes. 5–15) × 105 (3–130)×105 (3–8) × 104 high melting temperatures are needed. A commonly used composite material is tungsten doped with barium or cesium. At high temperatures the barium or cesium atoms diffuse to the surface where they contribute to a low work function Wa . The measured anode current increases with the applied voltage until it reaches a saturation value, where all electrons, emitted from the cathode, are collected by the anode (Fig.

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