By Professor C. J. Joachain, N. J. Kylstra, R. M. Potvliege

Filling the necessity for a ebook bridging the influence of topic on X-ray radiation and the interplay of x-rays with plasmas, this monograph offers entire assurance of the subject. As such, it offers and explains such strong new X-ray assets as X-ray free-electron lasers, in addition to brief pulse interactions with solids, clusters, molecules, and plasmas, and X-ray subject interactions as a diagnostic instrument. both helpful for researchers and practitioners operating within the box "The improvement of lasers able to generating high-intensity pulses has opened a brand new zone within the learn of light-matter interactions. The corresponding laser fields are robust adequate to compete with the Coulomb forces in controlling the dynamics of atomic platforms and provides upward push to multiphoton approaches. This e-book offers a unified account of this speedily constructing box of physics. the 1st half describes the elemental phenomena taking place in severe laser-atom interactions and offers the fundamental theoretical framework to investigate them. the second one half encompasses a exact dialogue of Floquet conception, the numerical integration of the wave equations and approximation tools for the low- and high-frequency regimes. within the 3rd half, the most multiphoton tactics are mentioned: multiphoton ionization, excessive harmonic and attosecond pulse new release, and laser-assisted electron-atom collisions. geared toward graduate scholars in atomic, molecular and optical physics, the e-book also will curiosity researchers engaged on laser interactions with matter"-- Read more... half I. uncomplicated recommendations: 1. High-intensity laser-atom physics; 2. thought of laser-atom interactions -- half II. Theoretical equipment: three. Perturbation idea; four. Floquet concept; five. Numerical integration of the wave equations; 6. The low-frequency regime; 7. The high-frequency regime -- half III. Multiphoton Atomic Physics: eight. Multiphoton ionization; nine. Harmonic new release and attosecond pulses; 10. Laser-assisted electron-atom collisions

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13) with the electric-field strength given by E0 = ωA0 . The quantity A0 , which we take to be positive, is the amplitude of the vector potential. Both the vector potential A and the electric field E are in the direction of the real unit vector ˆ , which is called the polarization vector. 10) is given by B(r, t) = E0 (kˆ L × ˆ ) cos(k L · r − ωt − ϕ). 14) it follows that the vectors E , B and k L are mutually orthogonal. Moreover, we see that |B| 1 = . 14), for which the electric-field vector points in a fixed (time-independent) direction ˆ , is said to be linearly polarized.

In order to develop a successful model of strong field phenomena at low frequencies, it is necessary to go beyond tunneling or over-the-barrier ionization, and take into account the possibility that the ionized electron will return to the vicinity of its parent ion or atom core. The semi-classical “recollision model” developed by Corkum [79] and by Kulander, Schafer and Krause [80] is based on the idea that ionization by strong laser fields at low frequencies proceeds via several steps. In the first (“bound–free”) step, the active electron is detached from its parent core by tunneling or over-the-barrier ionization.

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