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And 2 masses. 036. However, we shall see in the next section that it is more appropriate to use a value of a-’ N 129 at momentum transfers characteristic of the W mass. With this and other electroweak radiative corrections. 6 Ge\-/ sin 8. leading to the successful predictions (7). The Z mass is expressed in terms of the W 7mass by :Liz = -\fw/cos 8. Copyright © 2002 IOP Publishing Ltd. 5 35 Neutral current processes The interactions of Z’s with matter, C,,t z = (g2 + g’2)‘/‘y(13L - Q sin2 0) ,ZG.

We still have two arbitrary couplings g and g’ in the theory. however. Up shall show how to relate the electromagnetic coupling to them, and how to measure them separately. The interaction of the fermions with the gauge fields is described by the kinetic term L A = wpv. Here. as usual. The charged-W interactions have already been discussed. They are described by the terms (76) for leptons and (80) for quarks. The interactions of \tT3and B may be re-expressed in terms of A and Z via the inverse of (127) and (128): Lt; = Z,cos B + A, sin B .

A t levels far above those observed. It was the desire t o banish strangeness-changing neutral currents that led Glashow et al. (1970) to introduce the charmed quark c (proposed earlier by several authors on the basis of a quark-lepton analogy) and the doublet .? In this four-quark theory, one assumes the corresponding matrix I/' is unitary. By suitable phase changes of the quarks, all elements can be made real, making V an orthogonal matrix with Vud = Vcs= cos 8~~LLs = -Vcd = sin 8c. c =-[ 2 + ~ ~ L T ~ u TLL * / ~ c L - dL-fpdL - S L ~ ~ S L ] .