By Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

This booklet provides a accomplished assessment of the surprising advances obvious in atomic physics over the past 50 years. The authors clarify how such development was once attainable via highlighting connections among advancements that happened at diverse instances. They speak about the recent views and the hot learn fields that glance promising. The emphasis is positioned, now not on specific calculations, yet particularly on actual rules. Combining either theoretical and experimental concerns, the ebook can be of curiosity to quite a lot of scholars, academics and researchers in quantum and atomic physics.

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Effect of a π/2 pulse induced by a single photon in a resonant cavity It is possible nowadays to build cavities with very high Q-factors. This allows one to neglect all damping processes and prepare states of the field in this cavity that have a single photon. Suppose that one mode of this cavity is resonant for the frequency ω0 of a two-state system and that one can neglect the effect of all other modes. If we prepare the total {atom + field} system in the state |−, N = 1 (atom in the |− state in the presence of one photon), this state is resonantly coupled to the state |+, N = 0 (atom in the |+ state with zero photon).

22, we introduce the GrossPitaevskii equation, which describes this situation and which explains quantitatively most of the static and dynamic properties of weakly interacting condensates at very low temperatures. In Chap. 23, we introduce the correlation functions of the atomic field operators in quantum gases and show that they allow a clear understanding of the coherence properties of condensates. Finally, in Chap. 5in Advances in atomic physics: an overview of quantum fluids, their superfluidity.

One then finds that the evolution in the new representation is governed by the same Hamiltonian as the spin Hamiltonian in the rotating frame OXY Z given above in Eq. 30). One concludes that any two-level system {e, g} can be described as a “fictitious” spin 1/2 when it is driven by a resonant electromagnetic wave coupling e and g: it oscillates between e and g at the Rabi frequency Ω. We saw in the previous subsection that, for a real spin 1/2, linear superpositions of states are related to the existence of a transverse magnetization.