By Prof. L. Valadares Tavares (auth.)
More than 40 years have handed because the early makes an attempt to version initiatives. a wide area of theoretical advancements has grown generating a excessive variety of analytical and numerical effects, however it turns out that the most version continues to be a similar: the concept that of undertaking community. this idea has come to symbolize the 2 significant gains underlying the proposal of a undertaking: the sequential and the aggressive nature of its elements, the project's actions. truly, the sequential estate defines the constitution of the venture and the aggressive nature stems from using universal assets (facilities, items, apparatus, administration, etc.) to hold out the several actions. although, major advances were accomplished in undertaking modelling, permitting the construction of even more strong effects: A. the concept that of priority and the outline of actions has been generalized to provide a variety of lifelike illustration of tasks. B. the stochastic examine of the good points of initiatives equivalent to the period and price in their actions is conducted by way of numerous analytical and numerical types, permitting experimental and forecasting analyses. C. the allocation of assets will be now studied for extra complicated occasions and regulations. D. the monetary description of tasks is extra competently studied and its optimization is punctiliously pursued. E. the overview and the review of tasks now might be studied in the framework of multicriteria selection concept contemplating a number of views and helping the venture supervisor to choose the main applicable compromises among hazard, time and anticipated gains.
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Extra resources for Advanced Models for Project Management
Day) of work and C (t) expressed by the maximal number of workers during the time unit t. Another example concerns energy as R (t) is defined by the consumption in (kwh) and C(t) is given by the installed power expressed in kw. Actually, in theoretical terms, any non-renewable resource is also constrained by C(t) because the consumption or the use of any good cannot be made at an infinite rate, and so there is a maximal availability constraint (for instance, the use of m3 of concrete cannot be done above the maximal flow of output of the adopted equipment).
The acyclicity condition also implies that if there is a direct precedence link between j and i. j ..... i. then one cannot have i ..... j. which means that the pairwise direct precedence relation is not symmetric. This type of network is called a directed acyclic grallh. In this type of graph. the concept of path can be quite useful to study several properties or functions and it can be easily defined by any sequence, L. • M-l which means that there is a direct precedence link from activity Am to activity Am+ I.
However, the decomposition into a very large number of parts may be very inconvenient as the analysis and the study of the project become too hard. Unfortunately, this has happened quite often, obtaining too complex representations with very little value for supporting the decisions of project managers. (A common joke within the "milieu" of project managers says that the main utility of network diagrams with 10000 or 20000 of activities is the decoration of walls behind their desks ... ). 20 Advanced models for project management A better approach can be followed by adopting multiple levels of decomposition and keeping the number of components (so-called activities) in each level under reasonable limits.