A Guide to Analog Asics by Paul M. Brown Jr.

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By Paul M. Brown Jr.

Software particular built-in circuits (ASICs), either analog and electronic, became average process point bulding blocks. ASIC proprietors have tried to supply instruments that they wish will let really green IC designers (i.e. structures engineers) to layout refined customized built-in circuits. This philosophy has been extra winning in electronic expertise than in analog. considerably extra paintings is concerned with analog layout and much fewer automatic instruments can be found. virtually each analog ASIC seller bargains various semiconductor applied sciences, instrument units, documentation (usually missing intimately and never offering the right kind history and guidelines), and ranging degrees of engineering aid. the result's that many engineers who may perhaps use analog ASICs lack the technical details to take action. they aren't certain while customized analog ICs are inexpensive or which seller will most sensible serve their wishes. additionally, many engineers do not need sufficient analog layout adventure, in particular with built-in circuits. Consqeuently, many that may gain advantage from analog ASIC expertise don't use it whereas others have undesirable studies that can have simply been kept away from.

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Any glass remaining on the pad will interfere with this bonding process. Figure 2-18 is a photograph of a finished semicustom die. The wafers are next visually inspected for any obvious defects. The test die are evaluated to ensure that all of the processing parame­ ters such as beta, breakdown, sheet resistivity, and metal etch are 32 2. Integrated Circuit Fabrication Technology within specification. If the wafers pass, they are sent to the first opera­ tional test, called die sort. Automatic probes step across the wafer one die at a time, testing the functionality of each die.

Small-Signal npn Typical small-signal npn geometries are shown in Figure 3-12. Smallsignal npn geometries can have either one or multiple collector con­ tacts. The multiple-collector contact geometries allow for greater layout flexibility. A cross-sectional view of a small-signal npn with the model elements included is shown in Figure 3-13. Inspection of the figure gives a good intuitive feel for some of the limitations of this device. The component r - is the combination of the contact resistance between the ee (a) Figure 3-12 (b) Typical small-signal npn geometries.

Circuits are designed using ratios between components rather than absolute values. This takes advantage of the inherent component matching while down­ playing any absolute value tolerances. It is important to keep this in mind when partitioning a system to define the integrated circuit and when partitioning an integrated circuit into the basic building blocks that will implement the various circuit functions. Significant impacts to the matching and thermal tracking of com­ ponents on a chip can occur due to the orientation of devices and their proximity to thermal sources, especially thermal sources whose power dissipation varies.

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