By ACI Committee 314
Summary: (For constructions of restricted dimension and top, according to ACI 318-11 and IPS-1, "Essential specifications for strengthened Concrete Buildings"
This advisor offers simplified tools and layout innovations that facilitate and pace the engineering of low-rise constructions inside of definite boundaries. fabric is gifted in an order that follows commonplace layout strategy with strategies brought because the clothier will want them during a development layout.
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Extra resources for 314R-11 Guide to Simplified Design for Reinforced Concrete Builidings
I think we cannt overemphasize the need of a strong figure. My own experience has been not in the theory but in down-to-earth topography. We have all had experience in measuring angles. By proper control of our techniques we can get almost any accuracy we want. We can control the azimuth, and its accuracy, by making an azimuth observation at periodic intervals. My thinking is to get control as fast and as cheaply as we can and still keep it as accurate as we need it. My feeling is that if we run a traverse, measure the angles, control by triangulation or by trilateration when we need to, use the Tellurometer or any other equipment we have available, we have extended our control by running a single chain of lines and gotten from one point to the other point in the fastest most economical way.
Later, we introduced all the data we had and then when we projected the line up to the mountain peaks, the result was the most accurate we could obtain. Hotine concludes that by using all the material you have simultaneously you will obtain the best possible adjustment. The results so far have not been overwhelmingly successful but have been encouraging. Dr. Johns—What do you think of the feasibility of measuring the ranges instead of angles as it is customary to do. Mr. Whitten—While we are discussing this I think Aslakson can tell us something about a situation where it was not possible to observe angles but he could measure distances.
The slope of the isobaric surfaces can be taken into account to some degree in multiple-base barometric leveling, but the involved computations required may not be justified in work of such low inherent accuracy. The geopotential-number unit of the geodesists is 98/100 of the geopotential-meter unit of dynamic height adopted by the International Meteorological Organization in 1947. A more important problem than the unit of measurement is that of the releveling that should be done. In terms of geologic time, huge changes of elevations of the ground surface are known to have occurred, but in the past it was assumed that crustal movement in any particular 25- or 50-year period could be considered negligible.